So far, at least 107 million COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered by 78 countries around the world Our world in data, A non-profit online scientific publication based at the University of Oxford. More than half of those doses were given in the United States (34 million), the European Union (14 million) and the United Kingdom (10 million).
Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an epidemic last year, world leaders and health experts, including the WHO, have called for fair and equitable access to testing, treatment and vaccines. As new vaccines are being approved and ordered, questions are still being raised about how millions of vaccines will be shipped to all parts of the world.
What vaccines are available?
Many vaccines are currently being applied worldwide and more are on the way. According to Nogzi Okonzo-Iweala, former board president of the UN-back vaccine alliance Gavi, this is the first time that many vaccines have been developed in such a short period of time.
These vaccines differ in terms of their treatment methods, efficacy, dosage requirements, and storage temperature.
Despite reporting the highest efficacy rate of 95 percent, the Pfizer-BioNotech vaccine requires a storage temperature of -70 C, making delivery more difficult. In comparison, vaccines such as the Indian-developed Bharat Biotech Kovaxin and the Chinese-developed Synovac and Sinopharm vaccine require simple refrigerators that make it much easier to manage wide-scale distribution.
In most countries, the first to be vaccinated are front-line workers, followed by serious and chronic diseases and the elderly. In countries such as Israel and the United Arab Emirates, a mass vaccination campaign is currently underway for the general public.
Indonesia, on the other hand, began its vaccine campaign by first vaccinating young people, including healthcare and public service personnel, rather than youth and the elderly.
Canada is implementing a policy of first vaccinating the priority population, key activists and then the public at large.
In the US, the country’s top infectious disease specialist, Drs. Anthony Fauci said the US hopes to begin vaccinating children by mid-2021. Testing is underway for children under 12 years old. Dr. Fauci said that if those tests were successful, then they would have another round of testing for children up to nine years old.
COVAX Global Vaccine Initiative
COVAX, a global initiative led by GWI, the Alliance for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) and WHO, aims to provide global access to COVID-19 diagnostics, treatments and vaccines.
With the COVAX agreement, 92 countries will receive up to 190 million doses from Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca manufactured by the Serum Institute in India.
Gavi aims to immunize 20 percent of countries that are low-middle-income and unable to purchase large quantities of vaccines. The group forecasts that at least 1.3 million doses will be made available to 92 countries by the end of 2021.
A list of 92 GAV COVAX AMC-eligible countries and economies based on 2018 and 2019 World Bank GNI data is presented below:
Low income: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, North Korea, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, Tanzania and Yemen.
Low-Medium Income: Angola, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Timor, Egypt, El Salvador, Iswatini, Ghana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Mauritania, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu. , Vietnam, West Bank and Gaza, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Additional IDA (International Development Association) eligible: Dominica, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Kosovo, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Samoa, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga, Tuvalu.
Apart from COVAX, separate mechanisms have been created by the CDC of Africa for the purchase of 270 million doses and 400 million doses.