Scientists say immunity from real-world COVID-19 infection and vaccination provides stronger protection without a third dose
People who have had COVID-19 and have been vaccinated No need to rush to get booster Now rolling out across the US, health experts say.
Millions of Americans Received COVID-19 Vaccine from Pfizer Inc and Partner BioNTech SE Qualify for an Extra Dose NowUnder the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Shots for seniors and some at-risk adults. Some of those who qualify are people who have been infected with the disease before or after vaccination.
Several studies suggest that people who have had COVID-19 and are fully vaccinated have stronger protection against the variant, and may not need to be promoted, although the research is preliminary and data is incomplete, according to scientists who specialize in vaccines and immunology.
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More is known about people who had Covid-19 and were then vaccinated, the scientists said, than those who were vaccinated and had the infection.
The scientists said studies show that a single COVID-19 exposure works as effectively as a vaccine dose. Like a vaccine dose, a real-world infection prompts the immune system to generate antibodies, B cells, and T cells that can fight viruses in the future.
Those who were infected and vaccinated “just won,” said Dr. Paul Offit, a member of the Food and Drug Administration’s advisory panel on vaccines, which supports boosters for older adults but not a wider campaign this time. Is. “I wouldn’t tell them to take a booster dose. I think they just got it” from exposure to the coronavirus.
Last week, researchers associated with the ZOE COVID Study app, which is for people in the UK to self-report symptoms and test results, said that two doses of the Pfizer-BioNtech shot after real-world infections increased six to 94 % security provided. Months after vaccination, 80% protection from vaccination alone or 65% from infection alone.
The researchers, who reported the results via press release, based on findings from more than 650,000 COVID-19 test results reported by app users. The findings were not peer reviewed or published in any scientific journal.
The strong protection provided by a combination of real-world infections and vaccinations doesn’t mean people may not eventually need boosters, the scientists said.
In the meantime, some people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions may want to get a booster soon, the scientists said.
Another factor that infected and vaccinated people should weigh before receiving a booster is whether additional doses may increase the potential risk of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart that is rare but seen in young men with a second dose of messenger RNA vaccine. It’s most common after stroke, said Peter Hotez, dean of Baylor University’s National School of Tropical Medicine.
Several studies suggest that vaccines are effective in protecting against serious illness and hospitalization, but may lose the power to protect against infection or mild symptomatic disease.
The Biden administration has insisted on booster shots to shore up people’s molecular COVID-19 defenses, with some studies indicating that protection decreases over time and the initial vaccine series may protect against the delta variant compared to the original strain. was less effective.
According to the CDC, more than 186 million people in the US have been fully vaccinated.
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The agency stopped tracking successful cases that didn’t result in hospitalization or death, but a Wall Street Journal Analysis found in August that cases developed in 0.1% of people who were fully vaccinated at that time.
The combination of immunity from real-world infections and the protection produced by vaccination is known as hybrid immunity.
So far, the data indicates that hybrid immunity provides stronger protection than just being vaccinated or infected, immunologists and epidemiologists said.
Experts said the findings suggest that people with hybrid immunity get adequate protection without the need for a booster.
Dr. Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University, said people who have been vaccinated and infected are “likely to be the last group that really needed a booster because they actually had three exposures.” “
Infection in the real world may be particularly additive because it exposes the body to excess spike proteins targeted by vaccines, she said.
one discovery CDC. published last month by Researchers found that uninfected people with previous COVID-19 infections were more than twice as likely to be fully vaccinated than people who had previous COVID-19 infections.
Researchers at Rockefeller University in New York said that people who were infected with COVID-19 and were subsequently vaccinated with a messenger RNA vaccine showed a 20 to 40 times greater immune response than those who were not vaccinated. went, in a study published in the journal Nature in June.
Researchers at Oregon Health and Science University said the levels of neutralizing-antibodies in people with hybrid immunity against the alpha variant were 5.2 times higher than the levels in those who had been vaccinated in just one study. Posted on medRxiv Preprint Server in April. The team tested other variants and saw similar effects.
The researchers found that hybrid immunity from infection and vaccination generally confers greater immunity than vaccine-induced immunity alone, including variants. The study has not yet been reviewed or published in any scientific journal.
Only people who are six months past their second dose, have received the Pfizer vaccine and fall into several high-risk categories because of age, underlying health conditions or occupation are currently eligible for a booster. Moderna Inc. And pending decisions on Johnson & Johnson Boosters.
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