Immune response from Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines spikes and then drops while antibody levels after J&J’s shot remain low but stable, study finds

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  • A new study published on Friday looked at neutralizing antibody levels generated by all three COVID-19 vaccines in the US
  • Results showed right after the second dose, Pfizer’s vaccine had 12 times higher antibody levels than the J&J shot and Moderna had 40 times higher levels.
  • Eight months later, Pfizer’s and Modern’s levels dropped by 44 times, while J&K’s levels remained stable.
  • Results presented Friday during the FDA’s Advisory Committee on J&J Boosters

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A new study finds that the immune response from Pfizer-BioNtech and Moderna COVID-19 spikes and then drops sharply, while the response to the Johnson & Johnson shot remains low but stable.

Researchers compared blood samples from a few dozen people who were fully vaccinated with one of three shots available in the US

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Conclusion – Published in The New England Journal of Medicine And presented Friday at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committee on the J-J booster — antibody levels 12 times to 40 times higher in people receiving Pfizer and Moderna than those initially given the J-J shot. Was.

However, after eight months, the levels of the two-dose vaccines decreased, while the J&K vaccines ‘stayed relatively stable’.

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The findings may throw a wrench in the advisory committee’s discussions with some experts saying the results suggest a booster shot is not needed.

A new study published Friday and presented at the FDA’s advisory committee meeting on the J&J booster looked at all three COVID-19 vaccines available in the US picture (left to right): Johnson & Johnson Vaccine, Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine and Moderna Vaccine

Results came two to four weeks after the second dose, with Pfizer's vaccine (dark blue) having antibody levels 12 times higher than a shot of J&J (black) and 40 times higher in Moderna (green).  Eight months later, Pfizer's and Modern's levels dropped by 44 times, while J&K's levels remained stable.

Results came two to four weeks after the second dose, with Pfizer’s vaccine (dark blue) having antibody levels 12 times higher than a shot of J&J (black) and 40 times higher in Moderna (green). Eight months later, Pfizer’s and Modern’s levels decreased by 44 times, while J&K’s levels remained stable.

For the study, researchers looked at 61 people at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston who were fully vaccinated.

Of the participants, 31 patients received the Pfizer vaccine, 22 received Moderna Vaccine and eight received the J&J vaccine.

Blood samples were taken between two and four weeks after the second dose of Pfizer and Moderna Vaccines, or six months later and again eight months later after a J&J dose.

Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at ID50, or the number of antibodies produced to prevent infection in 50 percent of normal adult humans exposed.

The results showed that Pfizer had an average level of 1,789 ID50 and Moderna had 5,848 ID50.

However, by eight months, levels have dropped substantially to 53 ID50, or 34 times, at Pfizer, and 133 ID50, or 44 times, at Moderna.

By comparison, two to four weeks after the one-dose vaccine, the average antibody level for J&J was 146 ID50, which was lower than the other two vaccines.

Eight months later that number increased to 629 ID50.

Co-author Dr Dan Baruch, director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, said: “I think the data should be reassuring for people who have received the J&J vaccine, that immunity The reactions are stable over time.” Boston Globe.

‘After about eight months, the antibody responses are relatively similar between the three vaccines.’

This difference can be attributed to the fact that Pfizer and Moderna Vaccines use new messenger RNA (mRNA) technology.

The technology works by using part of Covid’s genetic code to make the body a harmless piece of the virus.

It prepares the body to recognize the invader and mount an immune response by making customized proteins. Attack if a person becomes infected.

But J&J’s vaccination is known as a viral vector vaccine, which mixes genetic material from the new virus with the genes of the adenovirus — which causes the common cold — to induce an immune response.

The study also looked at levels of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that binds to and kills viruses, and found that they were stable over eight months for all three vaccines.

Despite the conclusion that antibody levels to the J&J vaccine are stable, Baruch told The Globe that the firm still wants the FDA to authorize a booster dose.

‘While protection from a single dose vaccine persists over time, it is not in the 90 percent range. It is in the range of 70 to 80 per cent.

‘A booster can increase efficacy to a level that is high enough.’

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