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The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to scientists from Japan, Germany and Italy.

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Seukuro Manebe, 90, and Klaus Hasselmann, 89, were cited for their work in “physical modeling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability, and reliably predicting global warming”.

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The second part of the prize was given to 73-year-old Giorgio Paris for his “discovery of the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales”.

The panel said Manabe and Hasselman “laid the foundation for our knowledge of Earth’s climate and how humanity affects it.

In the early 1960s, Manabe demonstrated how increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would increase global temperatures, thereby laying the foundation for current climate models.

Nearly a decade later, Hasselmann created a model that links weather and climate, helping to explain why climate models can be reliable despite the seemingly chaotic nature of weather.

They also developed ways to look for specific signs of human impact on the climate.

Paris “created a profound physical and mathematical model” that made it possible to understand complex systems in fields such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience, and machine learning.

Goran K. Hansson (C), Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and members of the Nobel Committee for Physics Thor Hans Hansen (L) and John Wetlaufer (R) sit in front of a screen displaying the co-winners of the 2021 Nobel Prize

Following the announcement, Paris said “it is very important that we make very strong decisions and move very fast” to tackle climate change.

“It is clear to future generations that we have to act now,” he said.

The winners were announced on Tuesday by Goran Hansson, Secretary-General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

It is common for many scientists working in related fields to share the award.

The coveted prize comes with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor (over $1.14 million). The prize money comes from a will left by the prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.

on Monday, Nobel committee awarded prizes in physiology or medicine To the Americans David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries of how the human body perceives temperature and touch.

Awards will also be presented for outstanding work in the fields of chemistry, literature, peace and economics in the coming days.

related: Nobel Prize awarded to US scientists for discovering temperature, touch receptors