Dozens of coronovirus vaccines entered clinical trials during 2020, and now, a handful are authorized Emergency use In different countries – means shots can be administered to the public, while their developers continue to collect data on their safety and efficacy. Should they meet all the necessary criteria, these vaccines may be fully approved in the future, and in some places, they already are.

Here’s a quick guide to worldwide use for the COVID-19 vaccine.

Pfizer-bioentech

Is a vaccine developed by Pfizer and German biotechnology company BioNotech 95% effective On stopping COVID-19, a large study was found. The vaccine is given in two doses, three weeks apart, and should be stored at minus 94 ° F (minus 70 ° C). On December 11, 2020, Pfizer-BioNTech became the first COVID-19 vaccine to become a vaccine Authorized for emergency use By the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Several other countries have also authorized the vaccine for emergency use, including the UK, Argentina, Chile and Singapore, and the European Union followed suit on 21 December. The New York Times reported. Bahrain, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland have fully approved the vaccine. On 25 January, Australia gave the vaccine “provisional approval” for people 16 and older, The Associated Press reported.

Schott uses a molecule called mRNA as its base. A molecular cousin of DNA, mRNA has instructions for making specific proteins; In this case, the mRNA in the vaccine codes for the coronavirus spike protein, a structure that sticks to the surface of the virus and is used to infect human cells. Once inside the body, the vaccine instructs human cells to manufacture this protein, and the immune system learns to recognize and attack it.

modern

The vaccine, developed by the US-based biotech company Modern and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), also uses mRNA as its base and Estimated to be 94.5% effective Upon stopping COVID-19. Like the Pfizer-BioNotech vaccine, it is delivered in two doses, but the dose is given four weeks instead of three. Another difference is that the modern vaccine can be stored in minus 4F (minus 20C) rather than requiring deep-freezing like in Pfizer shots.

FDA Authorized modern vaccine On December 18, both for emergency use, and the European Medicines Agency, an agency of Israel and the European Union, authorized shots for emergency use in January, according to the Times. Canada fully approved the vaccine on 23 December.

Oxford-AstraZeneca

The vaccine Developed by Oxford University And the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is estimated to be about 70% effective in preventing COVID-19 – said that in clinical trials, dosing seemed to be adjusted to boost this efficacy.

In people with two full-size doses, the vaccine was about 62% effective, except for 28 days; Half dose given after full dose, vaccine was 90% effective, According to preliminary analysis. However, half of the doses that clinical trial participants received were mistaken, and some scientists have questioned whether those initial results are representative.

UK And Argentina authorized the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine for emergency use in late December, and India and Mexico authorized the vaccine for emergency use in January, according to the Times. The European Medicines Agency of the European Union on January 29 authorized the vaccine for use in adults. The Associated Press reported.

Shots contain a weaker version of adenovirus, a common cold virus that naturally infects chimpanzees. Scientists modified the virus, so it cannot recur in human cells and then added code to coronovirus spike proteins. Inside the body, the vaccine enters cells and distributes these spike protein genes, which the cells use to form spike proteins. The presence of spike proteins triggers an immune response.

Sinopharma (Beijing Biological Products Institute)

Sinopharma, state-owned China’s National Pharmaceutical Group and Beijing Institute of Biological Products, developed a vaccine from an inactivated coronavirus, meaning a modified version of SARS-CoV-2 that cannot replicate. In late December, Sinoparm announced The vaccine, called BBIBP-Corve, is said to be more than 79% effective, according to preliminary data from late-stage clinical trials – the company said it did not have published data.

In the summer of 2020, China granted Sinoparam authorization to vaccinate construction workers, diplomats and students, including BBIBP-CorV, one of its two COVID-19 vaccine candidates, Live science first told. According to the president of the company, around 1 million people had received the vaccines by November.

In September the United Arab Emirates authorized BBIBP-CorV for emergency use and then fully Vaccine approved In December. Bahrain and China fully approved the vaccine in December, and Egypt authorized it for emergency use in January 2021, The Times reported. The vaccine is given in two doses at an interval of three weeks.

Sinopharm (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products)

The second vaccine candidate for cyanopharma developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products also uses an inactive coronavirus as its base. The vaccine has been authorized for emergency use in China and the UAE, but little is known about its efficacy.

Canino

Casino biologics, In collaboration with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, developed a COVID-19 vaccine using a weak adenovirus, but one that naturally infects humans, not chimpanzees. Late-stage clinical trials with the vaccine are still ongoing, and its efficacy is not yet known. The tablet is given in single dose.

In June 2020, the casino vaccine was approved for use by the Chinese military, According to Reuters.

Synovac

The Chinese company Synovac Biotech developed a vaccine from the inactive version of SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine, called Coronavac, is given in two doses 14 days apart. Live science first told. China authorized the vaccine for emergency use in July.

Estimates differ on how well the vaccine protects against COVID-19, and an official estimate has not yet been released. A clinical trial in Brazil suggested that the vaccine was about 78% effective in a small subgroup of patients, but in all people, efficacy could be up to 63%: According to estada, A Brazilian news outlet.

On January 12, researchers at the Butanon Institute, the biological research center where the tests were conducted, announced that the efficacy rate was 50.4% based on the latest data, BBC News reports.

Bharat Biotech

In collaboration with the Indian company Bharat Biotech, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology developed a vaccine from an inactivated coronavirus, known as covaxin, The Times reported. The vaccine is given in two doses, set aside four weeks, and is authorized for emergency use in India. Its efficacy has not been publicly reported.

Gamalaya Research Institute

Gamalaya Research Institute of the Ministry of Health of Russia developed a coronovirus vaccine candidate named Sputnik V, which was launched in the context of the world’s first artificial satellite, space race, Live science first told. The vaccine contains two common cold viruses or adenoviruses, which have been modified so that they are not replicated in humans; Modified viruses also contain genes that code for the spike proteins of the coronavirus.

In November, Russia announced that the vaccine is more than 91.4% effective at stopping COVID-19, according to preliminary data from clinical trials. On February 2, scientists reported that the vaccine had 91.6% efficacy, based on preliminary data published from a late-stage trial. the Lancet.

According to The New York Times, Russia began offering vaccines to its citizens in November 2020 as part of a major vaccination campaign. Russia had already approved the vaccine for limited use in August when very little data was available from human trials, Live Science reported.

Since November, Belarus, Argentina and Serbia have also authorized the vaccine for emergency use. On 15 January, Paraguay also authorized the vaccine for emergency use, Reuters reported.

Vector Institute

In October 2020, Russia granted “regulatory approval” to another vaccine, developed by the Vector Institute, a Russian biological research center, According to cnbc. The vaccine contains coronavirus peptides, which are small portions of the protein found in the virus. Like Sputnik V, the vaccine earned approval in Russia before large-scale clinical trials. Until now, its efficacy is still unknown.

Originally published on Live science.